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Introduction to Narain
Chapter One - Page 1
Chapter One - Page 2
Chapter One - Page 3
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four - Page 1
Chapter Four - Page 2
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight Page 1
Chapter Eight Page 2


History of Hindus in Sindh
Chapter One - Page Two

Marriage: -

Earlier Rishis considered Marriage as a Sacrament. Both husband and wife were to live together not only in this life but also in lives to come (Eternity). The last rites were to be preformed in simple way, by the surviving partner. This is reason why divorce was non-existent in Hinduism.

Three Nights Of Brihamacharism: - Abstention.

Marriage would not be consummated on the night of marriage. For minimum 3 nights neither of the partners was allowed to talk or touch each other, as it was believed that if a child was conceived during the first 3 days, the child would, instead of honoring the name of parents, end up in destroying them.*

* (From a study of the Vedic marital rituals it appears that the marriage had to be consummated, at the earliest, on the forth night after the ceremony, and this would not have been possible if the bride were not a youthful lady. Dr. A. C. Das: Rg Vedic Culture, p.251.)

Need For A Son: -

Put, Sindhi for son, is derived from Putar (Sanskrit). Pau meaning Hell and Tar meaning to swim / to cross over. Putar meaning a person whom sees his parents through this life to Heaven thus bypassing Hell by performing the last rites (see Manu Smriti).

This belief led to Aryans wanting sons, who would carry on the rituals connected with the last rites, like feeding the Brahmins or Pundits (Pitran khay Pani) and keep the name of their parents alive.

If one did not have a son at all, he would adopt one, preferably daughters’ son.

Eating Habits: -

Aryans introduced eating of Dal and wheat Chapati /Roti. Cooked Dal was called Magad Odan, meaning Dal made from Moong. It appears, earlier, only Moong Dal was available and other Dals came to be planted later. Flour made from Jav (Barley), mixed with Ghee, ended up in Lolli (sindhi paratha), which was called Apop. Syrup derived from Jav, mixed in Curd was eaten. Milk mixed with Jav, over cooked resulted Kherni, or Kheer in Hindi.

Land being fertile, produced bumper harvest of Jav & Tir (sesame seeds). Both these two items are used till today in every pooja and ceremony.

Vegetarianism In Hindus: -

Due to severe winter in Sindhu Mather, Aryas were non vegetarian. (Rig Ved 76-39-1). This diet continued till Mahabharta period and became strict vegetarians thereafter. (Mahabharat, Shanti Pro, Mokash Dharam, page 255). Even today, many Hindus cannot stand the sight of meat or dead fish.

Somras, (wine) was offered as Prasad and consumed in quantity by the disciples resulting in their becoming intoxicated and merry. Today, many Hindus are teetotalers.

Earlier Dress: -

Vastar or Poshak (Dress, Clothing), is today made out of cloth or fabric. The definition being, Vasa, meaning Vah, skin of an animal and Tra, meaning to cover.

The Aryas used skins of Lamb and Goat to robe them selves. Deerskin was also used. Many, even today, adore garments made of skin or leather.

Vine from tree was knitted to form a robe as well. These were called Valkal. Aryas passed on this art to other races as well.

National Dress: -

People of Sindhu Mather wore 2 piece garment. Dhoti & Chader. This is worn even today in Bengal. Earlier Rishis wore Turbans, either white or red till 1947. Brahmins and Bhaibands wore this Turban or white Pagree as called in Sindhi, as well.

In ancient days men wore half sleeve shirts or kurta and ingar (stole). Even Amils wore this during the reign of Kalhora’s and Mirs, (Muslim rulers of Sind).

Amils took up employment with them and adapted their attire viz. tall cap, long robe, and salwar. During British rule they changed to western cloths.

Real Wealth of Sindhis: -

Dhan is understood to mean Daulat/Money. But real meaning was Dhann, like in Dhanni, meaning owner of dhan / wealth.

Later coins were minted out of gold and silver and formed part of wealth.

The word Dhan and Dhann became two separate words. Now days, Dhani means wealthy and Dhanni means Malik, Owner. Be it owner of cattle or property .

Common Kitchen or Joint Family: -

Earlier wealth consisted of cattle and was subject to theft (Rig Veda-28). Theft of cattle is common even today. To protect their cattle and prevent theft, members of family lived together resulting in creation of Hindu Joint Family or Hindu Undivided Family as it is now called. Basic concept was to have maximum people around the house to help when need arose.

They lived under one roof, ate from one kitchen, combined their wealth, and prayed together as well. They were joint together in Body and Soul.

Bravery: -

Daughters leave their paternal home after marriage and live with their husbands. With the introduction of Joint Family, sons lived with their parents till their death and inherit the wealth. If wealth was stolen, lost or looted during the lifetime of their parents, then what wealth would be left for sons to inherit! Even unmarried daughters/sisters would have to suffer.

To protect their wealth, every member learnt martial arts to defend and protect their property and each other. Females learnt Archery, driving and riding Rath/Chariot.

It is said one named Nal married to Damyanti had a daughter named Inddersena Madgal. She was married to Rishi Madgal thereby called Madgalani. Some dacoits raided her home and took of with her cattle by over-powering and tying her husband. Indersena, on seeing this, grabbed her Bow and Arrows and gave chase in her Chariot and over powered the dacoits after inflicting them with serious injuries and recovered the property. Rig Ved, mandal 10-104.

This led to women mastering the art of Archery. Another example recited is of Raja Dasrath. Rani Kakai was driving Chariot of her husband when a pin, holding the wheel to axle, gave way. Rani Kekai immediately inserted her small index finger in to the slot and continued driving. Would any man do that today?

Gotar. Cow Barn: -

To prevent cattle from loitering and wandering away, Rishis, in those days, built high fences / walls around their houses to keep away the wild animals and dacoits. This came to be known as Gotar. Go, meaning cow, Tar meaning sanctuary.

The Rishis had a large community of their own and each formed their own commune. Many practiced Polygamy. This not only led to their having large families but also large stock of cattle and animals. Each had his own Gotar which was named after him. His sons, grandsons lived with him in the Gotar. They were identified as a Baradri. In Sindhi Goti (Gotri) means a person from Baradri. This was the beginning of Baradri system.

Sagoter. Small Families Form One Commune: -

Persons who had small families, even though they were not related and had small stock of cattle, joined up together to form a common commune, Gotar. They were called Sagoter. They considered each other as mother, brother and sister and no intermarriages would take place within them. Till today no Sagoter will marry another Sagoter.

Sipind. Persons of Same Blood: -

A family consisting of father, mother, sons & their wives, daughters, and grandchildren were called Sipinds. Pind meaning body, Sipind meaning born out of same body, blood.

Rishis prohibited inter-marriages from within same Sipinds as it was considered like brother marrying his sister.

Manu Samariti restricts inter-marriages upto seven generations on father side and five generations on mother side.

It is obvious that Aryans were people of high moral values. Now a days, marriages amongst cousins are taking place which reflects that we Hindus are loosing our values, which is regretful.

Bhaipi (Brotherhood). Caring For Each Other: -

Prohibition on inter-marriages between Sipinds and Sagoter led to the two considering each other as Gurubhais (brothers) and Guruben (sisters).

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