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Introduction to Narain
Chapter One - Page 1
Chapter One - Page 2
Chapter One - Page 3
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four - Page 1
Chapter Four - Page 2
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight Page 1
Chapter Eight Page 2


Chapter Eight
Page One

Migration of Hindus to Sind. 

Amils & Bhaibunds: -

Since King Akbar's rule, Hindus were employed freely in Government Service. 

Miya Adam Shah Kalhori introduced this system first in Sind. He appointed Diwan Gidumal (Gidwani), who was from the days of Mirs given title of Diwan, to his court.

Miya Noor Mohd. Kalhori, while on a visit and inspection of Multan and its surroundings, met Diwan Adomal (Advani) and other Hindus. 

In Punjab, Sikhs, led by Guru Gobind Singh, had shown their might, and proved their worthiness.

Diwan Adomal (Advani) having mastered swordsmanship was appointed Commander by Miya Noor Mohd. and brought him to Sind with him. Later other Hindus came to Sind.

Hindus, had already settled in Sind. Naro, towards Tando Bhagi, Asso Sumro (Rajput), Tamachi ( Yadoovanshi Rajput), and others ruled the area around Larkana, but no alliance with Miya Noor Mohd. Rana Dhareja ruled area towards Mirpur Sakri independently. (Sind Gazetteer page 111.)   These Ranas already ruled over Thhar Division 

Towards Thata and Jathi, there were Vanjharas (traders), who sailed over the sea and ocean to do their trade. Shah Abdul Latif has made a mention of them in his volumes  (Rasalo: Sur Sarag and Samundhi). These traders were worshipers of Sea lords (God) and the wives did Bahrano (Praying to Sea Lord and offering food to fishes in the river, sea and ocean), so that the men return safely back home. 

Those Hindus who worked for Kalhoras, were called Amils and Diwans, and those who followed their fathers foot steps were called Bhaibunds. Hindus in Sind, thus came to be divided in two groups.

Positions held by Amils: -

The Amil means "Amal,( Hukum Ka Amal Karo = Follow the Order), meaning Manager who follows Rulers (Boss, Proprietor, Owner's) order. All Kamoras, big and small, came to be identified as Amils.

The word Diwan is a Farsi ( Persian ) word. Its Sanskrit equivalent is Div, meaning to shine, sparkle. The Diwans would dress in their official attire when attending Rulers Court, Privy Council, Cabinet Council and Diwan e Aam (Public Hall) and stands out amongst the others.

During Muslim Rule, Diwans were appointed to the post of Revenue Collectors. 

Diwan Jethmal (Jethmalani) was Governor of Shikarpur. 

Diwan Gidumal (Gidwani) was a Minister with Kalhoras and Mirs. Most Diwans were members of the Council and had their appropriate seats and positions.

Bhaibunds refered to Diwans as Mehto. In sanskrit, meaning, Maha, Big. It also means Vadero, meaning elder of the community or society. In Gujarat and other villages, Vaderas were appointed by Rulers and Land owners to collect revenue and taxes from villagers, and to keep record thereof. They were referred to as Mehta. Later Mehta came to be identified as a Clerk. Amils, as they were also involved in Government's clerical work were also referred to as Mehtas. 

Thereafter, Clerks came to be referred to as Munshis. Those who taught Sindhi and Hindustani to British Government Officers, were also called Munshis, thus degrading the standard of Munshis. But, the post of Head Munshi & Mir Munshi, was considered Honorable Positions.

Munshi Valiran Advani was Chief Minister of Mir Nasir Khan. 

Munshi Awatrai Malkani was Finance Minister of Mir Subidar Khan. This post was equivalent to Chancellor of Exchequer. These persons were Kamoras (kam = work) (Civil Servants) of the Government. Hence, all persons so employed by Kalhoras and Mirs, were considered as Amils. Many of these had migrated from Punjab and had, during King Akbar's reign, learnt Farsi (Persian). They had donned attire similar to their rulers and were proud to wear it. Sindhi Amils also followed suit.

Khudabad: -

Miya Noor Mohd. Kalhori had choosen Khudabad, a city towards Dadoo (Dadu) as his capital, which lead to many Amils and Bhaibunds migrating there for employment and trade. Miya Noor Mohd., later constructed another city called Mohamedabad, where his son, Miya Mohd. Murad Yaab Khan set up his residence.

In the year 1755, Miya Noor Mohd. expired and Miya Mohd. Murad took the Throne. But, his brother Miya Gulam Shah Kalhori, in the year 1757, snatched his power and constructed another City called Allahabad, near Mohamedabad and shifed his residence there. Miya Mohd. Murad, shited to Khudabad.

In the year 1759, Dacoits raided Khudabad and looted both Hindus and Muslims. They burnt the city down, forcing people to flee to Sahiti, Tilti, Sewan, Larkana and Sakhar. Khudabad was left to ruin.

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