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Introduction to Narain
Chapter One - Page 1
Chapter One - Page 2
Chapter One - Page 3
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four - Page 1
Chapter Four - Page 2
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight Page 1
Chapter Eight Page 2


Chapter Seven

Muslim Rule.

Rule of Arkhoons: -

After Samans, Arkhoon Khan, head of Arkhoon Family (Khandan) ruled over Sind. In the year 1521 A.D. Shah Beg Arkhoon took over the reigns. He had brought with him Persian and Turkish scholars and poets. His son, Mirza Shah Hassan was a noted poet. Persian was taught alongside Arabic and Muslims gained majority. Many Moghuls and Sherazi migrated to Sind. In the town of Thhata, there still exist (1947) pockets called Mugul Waro, and Sherazi Paro. It can be said that it from that period the Muslim rule over Sind began.

Riots, Looting, Arson in Sind: -

In the year 1521, in the process of taking over rule over Sind from Samans, Shah Beg Arkhoon ordered the burning of Thhata. However, Local residents and prominent person (Syeds) intervened, and major destruction was avoided.

However, Syeds who lived at Bakhar and were responsible for destruction and massacre of 42 Baluchi villages and its inhabitants, were asked to leave. They then settled at Rohiri. (Sind gazetteer page 100). 

Tar Khan: -

Arkhoons lost their power, but one Sultan Mohammed, a commander with Mirza Shah Hassan Arkhoons forces, in the year 1554, fought with Mirza Esayee Tar Khan, and retained control over Bakhar and its surroundings.

In the year 1555, Mirza Esayee Tar Khan sought help from Portuguese, who, sent Commander Pedro Baretto Rolim with his army to Mirza Esayee's rescue. The Portuguese forces looted and burnt Thhata, both, properties of Hindus as well as Muslims valued in Lacs (Hundred Thousand) of those days. This looting is considered un-matched in whole of Asia. (Sind gazetteer page 105). 

Thhata (Thhato) was again rebuilt. 

In the year 1591, forces of King Akbar, invaded Sind as Mirza Jani Beg would not concede to him. Rather then concede defeat, Mirza Jani set torch to Thhata and burnt it down.

It is with joint effort of Hindus and Muslims that Thhata was again rebuilt and flourished. It is said that during the time of Miya Noor Mohd. Kalhori, King Nader Shah visited Thhata with his army consisting of one lac soldiers. They stayed and ate for 15 days. But the grain did not run out.

Delhi Rule: -

In the year 1591, King Akbar's forces defeated Tar Khan in battle, but won them over and appointed them as Governers of their area. In the year 1612, with the death of Mirza Gazi Beg, Tar Khan dynasty ended. There after, Governers or Nawabs were sent from Delhi. This, resulted in propagation of Persian language and increase in Muslim population in Sind.

Unity Amongst Hindu and Muslims: - 

Three noteworthy practices draw ones attention during King Akbar's rule.

1) Hindus and Muslims intermingled with one another,
2) Muslims shaved their beards like Hindus and
3) Hindus donned Muslim attire.

This practice then caught on in Sind as well. Muslims in Sind also adapted Hindu words and Hindus, Persian. It will be interesting to note that Holy Muslim Saints (Darvesh) of Kandri, near Rohiri, namely Rohal, Gulam Ali, Daryiya Khan, Murad and others had given their discourses in Hindi.

It is also interesting to note that in Delhi then, Hindus were given Government jobs and employment without let or hindrance. They were not required to know or learn Persian. They kept Government records and accounts in Hindi.

It was the Revenue Minister of King Akbar, Raja Todarmal, who ordered that all employees learn Persian and keep all records and accounts in Persian. In Sind, due to rule of Arkhoons and Tar Khan, all records were already written and kept in Persian.

Employment of Hindu Government employees in Sind, from the days of Miya Noor Mohd. Kalhori , was already on the increase. Many had come from Punjab and knew Persian. 

Employment with Muslim rulers was mainly due to Hindu Muslim unity.

Rule of Kalhoras: -

The Kalhoras are also called "Abasi" as they are descendants of Khalifs of Hazrat Mohammad's uncle (Chacha), Hazrat Abbas. During reign of King Akbar, Nawab Khan Khanan, a Kalhora, was appointed Sind's first Governor. Thereafter, the rest of the Governors of Sind were Kalhoras, whom residents of Sind worshipped as Peers. ( The Enlightened Ones).

One amongst these Kalhoras, Miya Adam Shah is buried on a hill at Sakhar. The hill in known as "Adam Shah Ji Takri". Thereafter, his grandson, Miya Shahil Mohd. Kalhori did a lot for Sind. Larkana was a village then, known as Ladak or Larak, named after a community by that name. Miya Shahil Mohd. is responsible for digging a cannel which provided Larkan with abundant water supply which resulted in Larkana becoming a flourished city. There is a saying, " Jay Hujayee Nano (Money) ta Ghum Larkano, Na Ta Wat Waygano". Meaning, if you have money visit Larkana, otherwise remain where you are. 

After Miya Shahil Mohd., Miya Yaar mohd. Kalhori took over the control and became ruler of Sind. With the help of his loyals and followers, he won over Khudabad near Daddo from Panohar Muslims. His body is laid to rest at Khudabad. Shah Inayat Allah Suffi, living at Jhok Sharif, became a martyr at that time. Shah Abdul Latif was still a young man then, and Suffiism gained popularity in Sind then on. 

Between the year 1718 and 1719, Miya Yaar Mohd. left this planet, and his son Miya Noor Mohd. Kalhori took the Throne. Amils, played a role hereafter. 

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