History of Hindus in Sindh
Chapter One - Page One
STORY OF HINDUS IN SIND.
Sind; Census: -
Till the year 710 A.D., all the inhabitants of Sind were
In the year 711, when Arabs invaded Sind, Chana, Sahta,
Lakha, Lahna and others lived there and many had converted to Islam. Their
descendants live in Sind till today.
Later, Somrans, Samans, Laharans and others converted to
Islam as well and their descendants are Somras, Samas, Kath Bhabhan
(Brahmins), Khawajas and Memons.
During the reign of Arkhoons and Tarkhans, many Muslims
migrated to Sind. Later Kalhoras, Khosas, Baruch and others came.
Some Hindus converted to Islam and became Shaikhs, during
British rule as well.
As of 1946, there are 73 percent Muslims and 27
percent Hindus in Sind. Of these Hindus, many had migrated, during the reign
of Kalhoras and Mirs, from Punjab, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur,, Kutch, Gujarat and
The Author, Diwan Bherumal Meherchand Advani
has also compiled the origin of Sindhi Surnames, and these will
follow in next volume.
SOCIAL, CULTURAL, & POLITICAL HISTORY OF ANCIENT
HISTORY OF HINDU RULE OVER SIND.
RIG VEDIC PERIOD.
The original pioneers of Hindu Sabhita (culture/history)
were People of Arya origin. Arya meaning Honest, Royal and Respectful.
Rig Vedas mentions approximately 40 Arya families, out of
which 5 families are considered important and are referred to frequently.
They are, YADHOO, TAROSO, AANU, DHARYO and PEROHA, all originating from
CHANDERVANSHI family, and descendants of RAJA YAYATI.
Sindhi Bhatia’s are descendants of Soma Rajputs of Sind,
Kutch & Kathiawar and Bhati Rajputs of Jaisalmer. Their Roots are
connected with Yadhoo Arya (Jadavanseen) family. It is from this family,
during the era of Mahabharata, that Shri Krishna was born.
The word Bharat (India), Bharat Varsh & Bharat Khand
originate from a Pro-Arya Raja Bharat, son of Raja Dushyant and Shakuntala.
During Rig Vedic period, Aryans lived in Sindhu Mather
(valley), and are founders / pioneers of Hindu culture.
Sapt (Seven) Sindhu: –
During this period, the Aryans lived along the banks of
seven rivers mainly due to easy accessibility to water. Of these seven
rivers, five rivers currently flow through Punjab, sixth Saraswati and
This entire region is named as Sapt Sindhu in the Rig
Veda. It included territory of Punjab, Sind, and Ghandhar (Kandhar in
Afghanistan), & area around Peshawar. This entire area was called SINDHU
Living along the bank of Sindhu river, the Aryans came to
be known as Sindhu (Sandhoo). But, how did the name Hindu originate ?
The Holy book of Parsis, " ZINDOSTA "
pronounces Sapt Sindhu as Hapt Hindu. ‘H’ replaced alphabet ‘S’.
Like in rural Sindhi, we pronounce the word Fhasi as
Phahi and Saas (breath) as Saah.
The Iranis too had pronounced the word Sindhu as Hindu.
The real meaning: People living alongside the banks of river Sindhu or
people living in Sindhu Mather.
When the other races (Muslims etc.) migrated into Sind,
Hindus came to be identified as people, believer of Brahmi Dharam.
The Sindhu (Hindu) name spread to the entire region of
Hindustan and its people came to be called Sindhu (Hindu).
The Greatness of Sind & it’s Culture: –
Rig Vedic describes Sind as rich in culture, tradition
One Rishi (saint) gave enormous praises to Sind. He said:
" Sind is rich in horses, carriages, chariots,
jewelry, rich in food and grain.
Silama plant (a product derived from Date tree) is found
in abundance in Sind from which rope (Van) is spun, and is used in Charpai,
Khhat (wooden four legged cot.)
The bank of Indus river is abundant with flowers on which
the Bees thrive. (Rig Veda – section 10 – paragraph 75 - *
* (The Sindhu is rich in Horses, Rich in Chariots,
Rich in Clothes, Rich in Gold ornaments, well made, Rich in Food, Rich in
Wool, ever fresh, abounding in Silama Plants, and the auspicious River wears
honey- growing flowers " Rigvedas X 75. Prof.Wilson’s
It is to be noted that the people of Sind even in those
days adored to dress and wear clothes, jewelry, riding & owning horses,
carriages, in contrast to their counterparts.
Praises to Sind’s Raja (King): –
In the first part of Rig Veda it is stated that amongst
the Rajas of Sind there was one named Svanya, who was son of Raja Bhavaya
and was from Pro-Arya Karvi family. They were later called Panchal.
Raja Svanya was considered Dharamatma (A good soul). His
Rani (queen) was called Romasa. They had ten daughters who were all married
to one (sage) Rishi Kakshun.
It was a common practice in those days to marry as many
wives as possible. The dowry system was also lavish. But, whatever dowry was
given was considered as Daan (charity).
Rig-Veda, Part 1 – paragraph 26 – mantra 5 states
Rishi Kakshun received substantial dowry and in turn sang praises of Svanya
– Bhavaya. This Daan Istati (charity, in form of wealth) is referred to as
Sukha Jee Sarah (appreciation of happiness).
It also states: "By giving dowry consisting of 100
gold Guineas, 100 horses, 100 four legged animals, 1007 cows, 11 carriages,
one each for the ten wives and one for Rishi Kakshun, every carriage with 4
Sindhi horses decorated with pearls".
Raja Svanya Bhavaya made a name for himself, and became
Amar (famous). It is evident from the above that Sind was rich in wealth.
Birth of Civilization: -
Civilizations flourish wherever there is water. In
absence of tools to dig wells and to till the soil, we Sindhis were blessed
for having River Sindhu amidst us.
It is from Sindhu, that the word Sind has been derived.
In Sanskrit, Sindhu means Ocean, Sea or Large River. The word Syand means
Vahan (to flow), meaning a river which flows continuously, like an ocean.
We were also blessed to have intelligent Rishis living in
Sindhu Mather during period of Rig Vedic.
Rishi Athroon, after whose name Athroon Ved is named,
taught us the art of lighting Fire.–Ref Rig Ved part 10 – 21 – 5.
Invention of fire was considered Karamat (miracle). Rishi
Angyra and Rishi Bhargo families performed Agnipuja. Rig Ved part -1-31-58.
Their Pundits were called "Athhroon".
Rig Ved – first part – paragraph 12 – mantra 16,
mentions of Aacharya Shyan stating that Devtha Ashvini Kumar taught the art
of cultivation and tilling the soil.
According to Atharva Ved part 8 – 10 - 24) the art of
ploughing the field was taught by Prathavi, who was son of Veena.
The technique building Carriage & Chariot was taught
by Rishi Bharghu’s family. Thus started a wave of Invention of new Arts
All Learnt art of cultivation, weaving, riding and
driving the carriage/ chariots, and it became part of life. Many became
Black Smiths, Gold Smiths, Barbers, Carpenters etc. There was no Taboo to
learning any profession.
Housewives preferred to ground grain, spin yarn at home,
despite flourmills and spinners available in the market. Besides
professional Artisan, there were also persons who promoted Trade and brought
prosperity to Sind.
Trade by Land Route: -
It is learnt from Rig Veda that Sindh Mather produced
Grain and Fabric far in excess of their need. Traders traveled to far off
places to sell their wares. They carried their stock on Horse, Camel, Mule,
and on Donkey backs and traveled in Caravans. Barter was common mode of
trade. Forward trading was common.
Earlier Sind-Workee: -
In the year 1869, Suez Canal came into existence. This
encouraged the present Sindworkee’s to migrate to Malta, Gibraltar, Cairo,
and Gulf etc. They traded in products manufactured in Sind viz. Embedded
Wood Work from Halla (a town near Hyderabad Sind), Turbans, Caps, Topis,
Pagrees and Shawls etc., which sold in Egypt and elsewhere. Name Sindworkee
(Sindhwork), was thus born.
Would you imagine that during the Rig Veda period, when
safe and comfortable sea travel was non-existent, Traders from Sindh Mather
sailed the seven seas at the risk of their life.
These traders were called "Pani, Wanjharo and Vapari".
They later were called ‘ Patak ‘ and " Vatak ‘ and subsequently
" Vanya ".
The Hindi word ‘ Baniya and banj is derived from the
Sindhi vanyo or vanj.*
*("Even is later Sanskrit lexicons, the Vanikas
came to be identified with the Panikas who were no other than the Panis of
the Rig Vedic times." Dr. A. C. Das: Rig Vedic India, P, 188.)
Many of these traders were sailors and had know how of
boat & ship building. Rig Veda states that these traders plied their own
ships at sea for monetary gain. – Rig Veda part-1- 48- 3.
They would first, before sailing, Pray to Sea God for a
safe journey. – Part 4, paragraphs 55, mantra 6.
Their ships had hundred Oars, part-1-116- 5. Hard work
gave them Success and Prosperity. Yet, they would not lag behind or fail on
making their contribution towards Daan or Charity.
A Seth by name of Brbu, contributed to charity with a big
heart and spirit and has received copious praises in Rig Veda -part 6 – 45
- 31 to 33. Till today, our Sindworkee’s and Bhaibhand brothers contribute
to charity with same spirit.
Condition of Aryans during Earlier Times: –
The Mantras of Rig Veda tell us condition of different
periods. It is learnt from these Mantras that earlier Aryans were not born
intelligent. Like others, they survived on hunting and game.
Later they raised cattle and learnt how to till the soil
and to cultivate. The Rishis amongst them were advanced and it can be said
that they transformed Hindu samaj (community) into Hindu Religious samaj
The rituals that came into being thereby were:
CHHATHI - Naming ceremony,
MAJHANDHO - Wife going to paternal house after delivery
MUNAN (Tonsure) – Shaving hairs the child is born with.
JANIYA – Sacred thread ceremony.
PHERAS – Going around the fire during the marriage.
PNNI – The last Rights when a relative dies.
PIND, SHRAADH – Feeding the Brahmins after death of a
JANIYO - Sacred thread.
CHOTI - Long streak of Hair at the back of men’s head.
TILAK, YAGYA, HAVAN, HOM, are all Hindu customs &
Hindu sociology, which don’t exist in other races.
GOTAR or NUKH - As you would have experienced while
visiting Haridwar, Nasik, or any other holy city, the Brahmin inquires from
you your Nukh and traces your family ancestry. This stems from the Rig Veda.
Through the help of Nukh you are able to trace your cousins near and
Village Life & Rajniti: -
Earlier Aryans lived in Goth (villages). Goth stands for
Goshat, a Sanskrit word that means a place to keep Cows in (Cow barn,
Stable). The Aryas would build their houses adjacent to stable. This came to
be known as Goth.
The modest Aryans lived in circular houses made of straw
and dried leaves. The wealthy ones lived in housed made of mud and clay, and
continued to reside in them until the arrival of British in India.
Agni Shala (Kitchen): -
Kitchen had a separate corner or room in the house.
Prayer or worship place had a separate spot in the same kitchen and was
considered as sacred. Even today, Hindus don’t wear shoes in kitchen.
Fire was lighted by rubbing two Shami Kundi (type of
wood) sticks with ghee on it. This resulted in worshiping Kundi (Pot made
from Shami to grind/crush grain).