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Introduction to Narain
Chapter One - Page 1
Chapter One - Page 2
Chapter One - Page 3
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four - Page 1
Chapter Four - Page 2
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight Page 1
Chapter Eight Page 2


History of Hindus in Sindh
Chapter One - Page Three

Nukh. Surname: -

As the size of families grew within the Gotar, need arose to identify each family by name. Each family was alotted a Nukh (Name), which helped to identify one another. From Nukh one knew which Goter one belonged to.

In Sanskrit word for Nukh is Lakh, meaning Laksh which in Sindhi is pronounced Lakh, meaning to know from where one hails.

Members of Keshap Rishiís Goter were given Nukh called Kaniya, Kanja & Kakoa.

Gautam Rishiís Goter were allotted Nukh called AVER, UDECH & AAEN, who were Brahmins.

Khatris and Vaishas had their own Goters. They were also allotted Nukhs.

Advaniís of Hyderabad Sind carry Nukh named "Maghoo Khatri". Ahuja & Makhija are names of their Nukh.

Surnames: -

During Rig Ved period, every family was identified by Grandfathers name. Garg Rishiís children were called Gargeen. Dikash (Prajpatiís children) Dakshyan - Dakshyani.

These Sanskrit word, Yan and Yani (Suffix), were pronounced in Sindhi as ANI. Meaning, descendants of.

Advani, meaning children of Adomal. This practice continues till today.

Varan Ashram. Cast System: -

It is observed from Mahabharataís Shanti-Pro that in those days there was only one cast i.e. Brahmin Cast. Later they split in to four groups.

Formation of Panchayits: -

An assembly of five persons or more got together and formed a Panchayit. It dates back to YADHOO, TAROSO, AANU, DHARYO and PEROHA period, and they are considered founders.

Village Panchayits: -

Every village had its own Panchayit. Itís function was to help & assist in times of need.

Grand Panchayit (Federation) For Villages: -

To resolve disputes between Villages over land boundary, wandering away of cattle, Grand Panchayits were formed.

Gram (Municipality), Gram Miny (Head Or Mukhi): -

Gram or Gaam meaning village having more then one street. The Aryans, for maintenance of streets, cleanliness, and security, formed Grams and a Gram Miny was appointed. All were to contribute their share of expense to Gram Miny.

Local Government: -

Aryans formed body for Local Governments. A Gram Miny overseeing 100 villages, was considered Shatpati or owner of 100 villages. Even today (1946/1947) in Zila Rohtak (Punjab) the Panchayit consists of 84 villages called CHORASI KHERA.

In Sind, district of Sahiti consisting of Navshero, Firoz, Bharya, Tharoo Shah, Pad yeedan, Mith yani, Chanija etc. have (1946) one Grand Panchayit, a system introduced from times of Rig Veda.

Mukhi & Mukhiya: -

During Vedic period persons were elected to the post of Mukhiya. There were no Mukhis. Persons elected were respectable people, and considered in high esteem by the voters. They were looked upon as fathers. Even now (1946/47) on every New Moon, Diwali and other auspicious days people in villages, towns & cities prostrate to Mukhi or Mukhiya.

Settlement of Disputes: -

Hardly any dispute was referred to an Arbitrator. All disputes were referred to Gram Muni or Mukhiya of the village or Panchayit, who would then summon four other members of the village (PANCHAS) and in consultation with them, and considering God as his witness, give his award which would be final and binding on the complainant.

The Panchas were called "Panch Parmeshwaran (God)". Even King Akbar appreciated this system and practiced the same in his court. *

Later, Kings were appointed to carry on the function of Mukhiya, and people voluntary paid taxes, joined the army but Panchayits continued.

*(The Hindus are religious, affable, cheerful, lovers of justice, given to retirement, able in business, admirers of truth, grateful and of unbounded fidelity; and their soldiers know not what it is to fly from the field of battle. Samuel Johnson: India p. 294.)

Rajniti, Jorjak. Political Organisation: -

Aryans propagated families of one Nukh to live together under one roof. This was called Kul or Parivar and were identified by their Nukh. If the settlement had more then one Kul or Parivar, it was called Gotar, meaning Larger or Maha Kul.

When the population of Gotar increased, it was called Goth (village). As the Goths expanded in size and population, distance between one Goth to another became short, a GRAM was formed.

Population of 1000 persons was called VISH (Canton or District). The inhabitants were called Vish. Vish, meaning residents. Later the they were divided in four groups.

Word Vaish was derived from Vish and included persons who were Abadgar (farmers), Traders, and Kasbi (craftsmen).

City: -

As the population grew, Cities were built. Word Pur as described in Rig Ved, means City. Even in Sindhi we use Pur like Mirpur, Kherpur, Shekarpur etc. In Sanskrit Pur means Fort. In ancient times, every settlement, village, town, and city had a wall around it. People lived within this wall which was called Fort.

Shikarpur was built within the Fort in the year 1617 AD. The Fort had eight gates. Each gate was known by its name viz.: Lakhi Gate, Hathi Gate and so on.

In the year 1728 AD., Karachi was built and it also had a FORT around it with two gates, one name Kharo Dar (Salty Gate) and other Mitho Dar (Sweet Gate).

Fort: -

Word Darga is mentioned in Rig Ved, which means Fort. Within the Fort there was a smaller Forts (Castles) where the Rulers lived and administered the Government.

Sabha. Body of Persons: -

Sum + ity, Sumti, meaning Assembly Hall. A place where Election of a King or Ruler, his Coronation would take place, Viz Diwan E Aam, House Of Parliament, State Assembly.

It is from this Sumti, business of Government was conducted.

After concluding of the business of the day, the Sumti would convert in to a Clubhouse with members wining, dining and playing game of Checkers, Shatranj and Dharo / Chopar.

Dharo is a rectangular, large Dice made of Ivory, 3 to 4 inches long, around one inch thick, with one, three, two and four dots imprinted on four sides. The game is played with two Dice.

Strong Hand of Rishis & Brahmins: -

It is understood from Rig Ved that Rishis and Brahmins were learned in their own field. They propagated religious rituals like Yag, Havans, and Poojas. They were very powerful and could dethrone the Kings.

Despite their powers, no Rishi or Brahmin ever attempted to become King. Instead, they preferred to be their Rajgurus, Ministers, & Advisers. They guided the Kings to be Fair and Just. This led to Hinduism reaching glorious heights.

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