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Introduction to Narain
Chapter One - Page 1
Chapter One - Page 2
Chapter One - Page 3
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four - Page 1
Chapter Four - Page 2
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight Page 1
Chapter Eight Page 2


Page One

Buddhist Period.

Buddhism and Pali: -

With the start of Kal Jug era, Vedic influence declined. A new religion, a new language came into existence.  Around year 6 B.C., Gautama Buddha laid the foundation of "Buddhism" and Mahavir Swami introduced "Jainism".  Sanskrit got transformed into a language called "Prakarat", later called "Pali".  Sanskrit became language of Brahmins while common-men spoke Prakarat.  Both, Gautama Buddha and Mahavir Swami preached in Prakarat and mingled with common-men while Brahmins kept themselves at distance. This resulted in Sindhis and  many others adapting Buddhism.  Jainism remained at a lower key, and Brahmins lost their hold.

Jainism in Sind: -

Relics (Oswar) of Jainism can be seen near Bhabhra, Nagar Parker, towards Halla, a town near Hyderabad Sind.

Rule over Sind: -

It is learnt from the Jain Holy book Bharateshvar Bahubali Verti and Jain Sahitya Laykh Samgrah, that Raja Udayin ruled over Sind around year 566 B.C. His empire consisted of 16 states, extending beyond Multan, Kutch, Kathiawar and other places. His capital city was called Vittabhaya Pattan and was spread over miles with population in Lacs (Hundred Thousands). 363 such cities existed in Sind. It's inhabitants were wealthy and cities had large Police force to maintain law and order. 

Renouncing the Throne: -

At the age of 18, Raja Udayin married Prabhavati, daughter of Raja Chetak of Vishal (Ujaini). One Mahabir Swami came to Sind and his discourses influenced Raja Udayin to extend that he renounced his kingdom and became Sadhu or sanyasi. He even advised his son Keshu against becoming King. Instead, his nephew Keshi Kumar took the Throne.

Rule of Terror over Sind: -

Keshi Kumar's rule of ten years was full of Terror. Raja Udayin, upon hearing this tried to reason with him. Keshi Kumar, fearing he would be ousted, tried to poison Raja Udayin. However, Raja Udayin had anticipated this and left his court after cursing him. Soon, in the year 533 B.C., a major Earthquake destroyed the entire region. Sind, never recovered from this devastation and has been ruled by foreigners ever since. (Dr. T. L. Shah: Jain History of Ancient India, Vol. 1.)

Iranian Invasion: -

In the year 516 B.C., Dara, King of Iran, invaded Punjab and Sind. He bought and won over the local rulers, and recovered 260 Mounds, equivalent to approx 900 kgs. in Gold in taxes.

Invasion by Sikandar Azim: -

During 325 B.C., Sikandar Azim invaded Sind and appointed local Governors. But soon died at Balbonia. The citizens on hearing this new, threw the Governors out and decided on self-rule.

Sind, Facts: -

It is learnt from Unani (Persian) Scholars and Historians that persons living in Sind had the secret recipe of longevity and had life span of over 100 years.  If a person could not honour his debt, the creditors would write off the debt and not pursue in court of law. Much praise has been given to Merchants and wealthy persons residing at a Sea Port called "Patal", which existed in district of Karachi, towards Thathaa (Thatho).

Murya Family's Rule: -

During reign of Sikander Azim, a family of Nands ruled over south Bihar. His army headed by Chander Gupt of Murya family, conquered Sind and Punjab. Later,Chander Gupt over powered the Nands and ruled entire North India. During his reign, it is written, people did not lock their houses or shops.

Maharaja Ashok: -

After Maharaja Chander Gupt, his son Bindosar, occupied the Throne. But nothing much of importance transpired during his reign.

Maharaja Chander Gupts grandson Maharaja Ashok succeeded the Throne and ruled over Sind and North India. He promoted Buddhism, and Ahimsa. Relics of his reign, till today are preserved, even in Sind. Ashok Pillar in Delhi, near Qutab Minar is one example.

Dewara & Thal Monuments: - 

On death of Gautama Buddha, his relics were claimed by the inhabitants of eight provinces, and built Samadhis over it. These places came to be looked upon as Holy Tirths. 

However, Maharaja Ashok ordered a portion of the remains to be exhumed from all the eight Samadhis, and sent to different Countries where Gautama Buddha and Swami Upgapt, a proponent of Ahimsa, Guru of Maharaja Ashok, had preached.

Both Gautama Buddha and Swami Upgapt had visited Sind, and some portion of last remains of Gautama Buddhas are also buried in Sind, and a Stupa or pagoda constructed over it. However, these stupas did not survive the passage of time. New Stupa were latter constructed and are located at Mohan Jo Daro and Kaho Jo Daro. 

Dacoits attack on Sind: -

Around the year 180 B.C., Invaders from Pukhtar/Bakhtar (Bactria) looted Punjab and later Sind. Iranians, Unanis, Saak/ Satheen from Turkey also followed suit around year 70 B.C. but stayed on. Sind thereafter came to be known as Indo Sathya. Later, Kashans came and overpowered Saaks.

Kashan Family: - 

Raja Kanshak of Kashan family also propagated Buddhism. After him Vasdev I and Vasdev II ruled over Sind. 

Certain monuments located at Mohan and Kahans jo Daro were re-constructed during the year 177-158 B.C. during Vasdev I era. At that time, large cities existed in North Sind. Ruins of 27 such large and 53 smaller cities still exist (1946-47) in Sakhar and Larkana district.  (Dr. Sunitikumar Chatterji: Modern Review for December 1924 p. 671).

Gupt Family: - 

In the year 320 B.C., Rulers of Kanya Kabaj (Kanoj) laid Roots of Gupt Family. Brahmins regained importance. Kavi Kalidas and others spread their teachings in Sanskrit, but Buddhism continued to flourish.

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