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Introduction to Narain
Chapter One - Page 1
Chapter One - Page 2
Chapter One - Page 3
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four - Page 1
Chapter Four - Page 2
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight Page 1
Chapter Eight Page 2


Page Two

Rao Family: -

Peace and tranquility prevailed for next 150 years, till Gojar Uhayer (Aabher) and others came. They are referred to as White Huns. They looted and burnt cities. Towards the end of year 5 A.D., they settled around Malva and other places and established Rao Kingdom in Sind. 

Around beginning of the year 7 A.D., five prominent rulers of Rao family, Rao Dewaji, Rao Siharas, Rao Sahisi, Rao Siharisi II, & Rao Sahisi II ruled over Sind. They were at first, considered of Shoodar (Untouchables) caste, and on their adapting and practicing Brahimi Dharam faithfully, they came to be accepted as Khatris and were identified as Agni Kul Khatri Rajputs. History considers this period i.e. year 650 A.D., as Rajput Era.

A few years earlier to this, during the reign of Rao Sahisi II, a Chinese traveler, Ho Ng Chiang visited Sind. In his travelogue he has described Ruler of Sind as Shoodar (Untouchable).

Kutch, Bhuj and parts of Punjab were then under Rule of Sind. Rock Salt from the hills of Punjab was called Sindhu Salt or Salt of Sind. These salt hills were within the boundary of Sind.

Brahmin Family: -

During Rao Sahisi II's reign, a Brahmin by name of Chich came to Sind.  From History of Kashmir "Raj Tirangni", it is learnt Chich's correct name was "Jij" and he hailed from Kashmir Royal Family. His ambition was convert Buddhists to " Sanatan Hindu Dharam. Chich took up a job as Munshi (manager) with Ramrao, Minister of Sind. Having displayed his capabilities and proven his worth, he was, after Ramrao's death, appointed Minister.

Shrewd as he was, Chich befriended Rao Sahisi's Queen, Rani Sahandi and married her. After Rao Sahasi, he became ruler of Sind and propagated Hindu Dharam. After him, his brother Chandar took the Throne and propagated Buddhism instead. Chandar died after seven years rule. There after, Dhahar? (Dhaharseen), son of Chich or Jij, ruled over Sind.

Arab Invaders: -

Since Vedic days, Council of Kings (Oligarchy) ruled over Sind from time to time, but had their disagreements. During the reign of Raja Dhahar (check spell), Arabs invaded Sind. The rulers, as usual did not see eye to eye. Having followed Buddhism and practiced Ahimsa, they had become non- militant and many considered fighting a battle "Sin". Arabs were fully armed and equipped and had equipment to break into and destroyed their forts. They succeeded and conquered Sind.

Result: -

As a result of Arab invasion, many Kings along with some of their subject left Sind to take refuge in Kutch and Punjab. They are identified in Punjab as "Aror-vansi", a word derived from Aror or Alwar, meaning hailing from or resident of Alwar.

Those Hindus who stayed behind were asked to convert to Islam. Many Sindhi Muslims, today, are descendants of those converts. A community living near Kherpur named Yaams, are descendants of Raja Dahar. 

Those Hindus, who choose not to convert, the Rulers in Baghdad, subjected them to payments of Levy & Taxes, and placed their property in hands of a Custodian. The Hindus opted for this rather then change their religion.

Sind Back to Hindu Rule: -

In the year 711 A.D., Mohd. Bin Kassam conquered Sind, and appointed Governors called Naibs. In the year 712 he conquered Multan, but died soon after.

Having lost Sind to outsiders, awareness awakened Sindhis. They battled with Khalifs and regained control over major parts of Sind except a portion of an area known as Lar in Karachi district i.e. area from Debal Thatha to the Sea. (Henry Cousens: Antiquities of Sind, p.29.)

Arab Khalifs ruled over Sind for 40 years, i.e. from year 711 A.D. to year 750 A.D. According to "Tahfat Alkaram", Raja Delo Rao (Rai Check spell) ruled over Brahminabad, a city towards Shahdadpur, and Raja Bhanbho Rao (Rai Check spell) reigned over Bhambhor, a city towards Mirpur Sakri. What remained in hands and control of Arabs was an area towards Shahdadpur. Rest of the Sind was regained.

Hindu, Self Rule: - 

Era of Abasi Khilafat began in the year 750 A.D. Abasi deputed their Naibs (Governors) to Sind. Mansoor Bin Jhamoor confronted them but was defeated and he sought refuge in Thar desert and but died of thirst. (Sind Gazetter, first edition, page 91). It appears apparent that Mansoor Bin Jhamoor was a loner in his battle to protect his city Mansoorand his rule over it, and did not have support of Baghdad. He had not participated in propagating Islam nor Arabic language.

Baghdad had, after levying taxes on Hindus, permitted them to practice their faith and were not compelled to learn Arabic. In other words, Hindus had their religious and language freedom and soon got their taste of freedom for a Revolt took place in Iraq during the reign of Bin Abas. Taking advantage of this turmoil, Sind revolved back to self-rule (Major General Haig: Indus Delta Country, p.73.)

Major General Haig, in his book "Indus Delta Country", page 73, has written that in the area around Lar, towards Piran, the Hindu Rajput rulers, though appointed by Arab Khalifs, were Independent. Khalifs did not interfere with their decisions. Thus Muslim rule was only in name. The Government was run by Hindus.

Sind Under Delhi: -

In the year 1024 A.D., Mohd. Gaznavi eliminated and wiped out the Arab Khalifs.  Sind came under Delhi rule. Again, the Muslim rule was only in name. Local Government was in hands of Hindus. This is referred to in history as "Somran Ji Sahibi".

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